Apr 20, (a) KITAB-UL-HIND was written by AL-BIRUNI in Arabic language KITAB-UL- HIND is simple and lucid and a voluminous text divided into 80 chapters on. Sep 30, Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic. Kitab Tarikh Al-Hind and Aims of Writing it. Al-Biruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind is simple and lucid. It is divided. were incorporated in Mahmud’s Indian army; and Al- beruni—what Geography. Kitab-almanshurdt. marching to Hind or India proper we start from the.

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The Kitabul’ Hind-a Medieval Reality Check | This and That

His policies tended to be liberal and his general treatment towards the Hindus healed strife and bitterness and produced an environment of harmony and goodwill where there had been racial and religious antagonism of a most distressing character. Some recent researchers on Akbar, have tended to focus on the factors contributing to the rise of his policy of religious tolerance based on the principle of S ulh-i kulor ‘absolute peace’.

Retrieved 10 November Al-Biruni is the first scholar, at least in the Muslim world, whose interest in other religious traditions went beyond the then common tendency of treating the Hindus as heretics or polytheists, despite their apparently idolatrous practices. There existed a flow of written documents — books, calendars and letters?

InMahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Today armchair specialists can sit in their chair on Internet and yet be completely unaware that such superiority complex is the usual characteristic in many societies. Did they come from the conquered world or from its outer boundaries?

He had, however, a most rigid regard for truth. Hindus considered Muslims violent and impure, and did not want to share anything with them. However, Many have used Al-Biruni’s work to check facts of history in other works that may have been ambiguous or had their validity questioned.

They live near the villages and towns of tge four castes, but outside them. He had no direct knowledge of Greek but he was well acquainted with the works of Plato and other Greek masters. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma’munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm.


He may even have learned some Sanskrit. He sums up the Hindu definition of God in the following words: On Science of India. Finally, written sources and oral informants, rather than direct observations, appear to constitute the major part of his sources.

At first, between andastronomical works e. So to say Indians were not fighters would be incorrect. His own concepts and information. See the online converter: He mentions about the inter-caste marriages and writes that it was common among the Antayaja those who were not reckoned among any caste.

He admired the Hindu civilisation but was critical of up attitude of the scholars and the dichotomy between the scientific himd and ignorance that existed side by side among the Hindus. One could expect that direct observation would constitute the main method of Biruni with regard to the conquered land.

You claim Indian society was moribund and what not at that time but your claim is questionable. This question is most difficult to solve. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.

It is divided into 80 chapters on subjects ktab as religion and philosophy, festivals, astronomy, alchemy, manners and customs, social life, weights and measures, iconography, laws and metrology.

Promotion of scholarship was essential for rulers at that time. He documented different bodies of water and other natural phenomena.

He extensively quotes from vast corpus of Sanskrit literature, like Patanjali, Beeruni, Puranas, Samkhya philosophy etc. It is common in many if not most parts of the world for the native people of a land to consider them the best in the world. Barriers obstructed Al-Biruni in understanding India.

He elaborated upon the fact that the earth was created from the elements and not solely through divine creation. Or were they used globally in many provinces of al-Hind? He also mentions that Indian astronomers knew about the real cause behind solar and lunar eclipses and that their calculations are scientific. He condemns the hypocrisy of Brahmin Scholars, who inspite of knowing the scientific explanation of various natural phenomenon preferred to mislead the masses and keep them steeped in ignorance and supersitious.

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Thank u sir I expect you would post remaining syllabus materials with same quality and concern. An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a Soviet post stamp. Henceforth, they do not let any unknown Indians, let alone the ql.

Moreover, in other portions of the Kitab al-HindBiruni gives the names of two of his sources, Jivasarman and S ripala which informed him about Kashmir and Multan respectively.

He also gave an economic reason for the importance of Somnath, prohibition of cow-slaughter, the prevalence of prostitution. Also there is evidence of a scholarly exchange of books between B iruni and a Kashmiri.

Kashmir is now visited [by devotees]; similarly, Multan was [visited] be- fore the destruction of its temple. Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era beguni was well versed in physicsmathematicsastronomyand natural sciences hinf, and also distinguished himself as a historianchronologist and linguist.

Through The Eyes Of Travellers

The self-absorption and consequent insularity of the local population constituted the third barrier. Indian customs, manners, festivals are also vividly portrayed by Alberuni. Al Biruni and The Kitab-ul-Hind.

The relationship has been characterised as tumultuous, with Al-Biruni generally feeling neglected and devoid of any state support.