In my last post about the Libro del caballero Zifar (‘The Book of the Knight Zifar’), I discussed the how the work’s prologue, which tells the tale of. La Chanson de Roldán es un poema épico de varios cientos de versos, escrito a finales del siglo XI, en francés antiguo, de carácter anónimo aunque fue. This article analyzes the political discourses on chivalry and gender in Libro del Caballero Zifar and provides textual evidence in support of the.

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Tonight I would like to take you back before all of this, to a time when Europe had yet to set its sights on the New World, before modern nation states and national languages and national cultures.

File:Libro del caballero Zifar, f35v (Ms. Paris).JPG

The knights of Arthurian tradition, so popular throughout Western Europe at the time, were the fictional avatars aifar the Crusading orders. This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights.

This image may not be in the public domain in these countries, which moreover do not implement the rule of the shorter term. Fromthere would be Muslim kings parts of the Peninsula until Boabdil, King zofar Granada, lays his arms at the feet of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel the Catholic in In fact, it is a language that was spoken in this city, in fact in this neighborhood for many years.

While Ladino has almost entirely ceased to be spoken as a natural language — you would be hard pressed to find a baby learning it from her mother today, there are a number of writers and musicians who continue to compose in Ladino and use it as a language of zigar and journalistic expression. Authors composed a wide variety of Aljamiado texts.

Libro del cavallero Zifar

Aljamiado literature was the only example of Muslims using the Arabic Alphabet to write in a Romance language. Cabxllero can still see his legacy in the city seal of LA. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Libro del caballero Zifar. Visigoths came over the Pyrenees after the disintegration of Roman political power and installed themselves in Toledo, where they ruled over Hispania for over two centuries.


The Christian kings of Leon and Castile pressed their advantage and by they had conquered Toledo, the former capital of the Visigothic kingdom. This caballwro a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art.

Samuel Armistead and Prof. His song ma li-l-muwallah is a festive bachanal set to popular music.

Two further examples of the Knight Zifar printed in Seville in survive. After Ferdinand completed his considerable military conquests, all that was left of the great al-Andalus was the small Kingdom of Granada in the south, which was reduced to the status of client state to Castile and Leon, and remained a harassed tributary state until its eventual defeat in by zifae Catholic Monarchs Isabel the Catholic and Fernando of Aragon.

University of California Press, Libro del caballero Zifar. Politically it was clear that Castile was a Christian kingdom, but it was one that counted many thousands of Andalusi Muslims, Jews and Christians in its population. Judeo-Spanish caballego Ladino is a base of medieval Spanish that over time acquired many loan words zifaar Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, Greek, Italian and French, but that retains caballeto today a recognizably fifteenth-century grammar and vocabulary that is novel but intelligible to speakers of modern Spanish.

The Iberian Peninsula before However, there were no toddlers speaking Hebrew in Spain, and Spanish Jews, like their Christian and many of their Muslim counterparts, grew up speaking Spanish or Portuguese or Catalan, singing the same traditional songs, and telling the same stories as their Christian neighbors.

From a European perspective, this period of Muslim political dominance is what most distinguishes the history wl culture of the Iberian Peninsula. Poets created political and social capital in the images and catchy but authoritative phrases they coined.

This page was last edited on 5 Februaryat This, too represented a bold innovation in Hebrew poetic tradition on more than one count. More than just a rarefied art form that one studied in school or that a select group of elite read quietly to themselves, poetry was more like a high-profile medium that traveled from mouth to mouth rather than from smartphone to smartphone.


The Andalusi capital, Cordoba, in the tenth century boasted lit streets, public baths, and vast libraries when Germany and France were in the depths of what we like to call the Dark Ages. For centuries, Castilian nobles were avid consumers of Andalusi textiles, architecture, ceramics, food, and music. As in the case of Aljamiado, Judeo-Spanish was and continues to be a distinctively Jewish form of Spanish.

Bodegas Zifar1 – Caballero Zifar

There may have been some musical accompaniment but poems were not sung to a melody, they were declaimed, recited. We all know about the first voyage of Columbus, but it was also the year of the defeat of Granada, when the triumphant Catholic Monarchs Isabella the Catholic of Castile and Leon and Ferdinand of Aragon took possession of the Alhambra, thus ending the existence of Islamic political power in Western Europe.

The knight Zifar is a medieval Placidus-cum-Eustace, and his story shares in part the didactic function of Eustacian hagiographybut in other respects is epic and chivalric. This was nothing short of revolutionary, a shocking innovation in Arabic poetic tradition. I am speaking here of the culture and language of the Sepharadim, the exiled Spanish Jews, who, once settled in their new homes in North Africa, the Ottoman Empire, or elsewhere, continued to speak Spanish, sing the ballads they had learned growing up in Spain, and wrote in Judeo-Spanish to the present day.

Were these Castilians simply cynically aping and appropriating the culture of the civilization they had essentially defeated and with whom they were sporadically at war for as long as they could remember? Within their community, certain linguistic habits began to develop: