The mediastinum is the most common extragonadal location. In adults, approximately % of mediastinal tumors are germ cell tumors;. 20% of mediastinal tumors and cysts; Typically divided into seminomas versus nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (teratomas [mature or. Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum. They most commonly occur in the gonad but occasionally.

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It egrminoma be remembered that mediastinal lymph nodes are metastatic sites for primary gonadal germ cell tumors, so that a thorough clinical evaluation is necessary to exclude the latter possibility. Germ cell tumors[TI] mediastinum.

Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum.

Monday 23 January New author database being installed, click here for details. In several of these cases, the genetic aberrations in the malignant megakaryoblasts were similar to those in the malignant mediastianl germ cells.

Syndromes associated with mediastinal germ cell tumors include Hematologic Neoplasia and Klinefelter’s syndrome. Pathology by regions G. Pure mediastinal seminomas are curable in the large majority of patients, even when metastatic at the time of diagnosis. Also in this section mediastinal synovial sarcoma mediastinal low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma mediastinal pericytic tumors mediastinal leiomyosarcoma mediastinal leiomyoma mediastinal mesenchymal tumors mediastinal tumors mediastinal smooth muscle tumors mediastinal lymphomas mediastinal extramedullary hematopoietic tumor.

Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum.

This page was last edited on 2 Augustat However, the cardiotoxicity of mediastinal radiation is substantial and the standard treatment of mediastinal seminomas is with chemotherapy using bleomycinetoposide and cisplatin for either three or four day treatment cycles depending on the location of any metastatic disease.

Click here for patient related inquiries. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. Germ cell tumor – mixed. Histologic grading of pure teratomas has prognostic significance in those neoplasms that are diagnosed in adolescents and young adults; immature teratomas in the latter patients pursue an aggressive clinical course.


Usually males ages 20 – 49 years, similar to gonadal tumors Cancer ; Unlike benign germ cell tumors of the mediastinum, malignant mediastinal tumors are usually symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Epidemiology Usually males Gross description Invasive, highly necrotic Microscopic histologic description Poorly differentiated, pleomorphic cells with prominent nucleoli, often with eosinophilic intracellular globules or primitive lumina; variable geographic necrosis No nuclear blebs Microscopic histologic images Images hosted on other servers: Fine needle aspiration biopsy can establish diagnosis with high degree of accuracy Am J Clin Pathol ; Some investigators suggest that this distribution arises as a consequence of abnormal migration of germ cells during embryogenesis.

May have aggressive behavior if not limited to mediastinum at diagnosis Cancer ; Gestational trophoblastic disease Hydatidiform mole Choriocarcinoma Placental site trophoblastic tumor Polyembryoma Gonadoblastoma.

Pathology by systems F. This article may be germinoa technical for most readers to understand. Wikipedia articles that are too technical from April All articles that are too technical Articles needing expert attention from April All articles needing expert attention Infobox medical condition All articles with vague or ambiguous time Vague or ambiguous time from April These neoplasms are often associated with the thymus, and in many cases appear to have originated in the thymus; residual thymic tissue is not identifiable in the highly meeiastinum and malignant germ cell tumor.

Initial treatment with four courses of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin, followed by surgical resection of any residual disease, is considered standard therapy.

These results and those of other analyses suggest that the two malignancies derive from a common founding clone of cells i. Non-small-cell lung carcinoma Squamous-cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma Large-cell lung carcinoma Rhabdoid carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland—like carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Papillary adenocarcinoma Giant-cell carcinoma.


mediastinal germinoma – – Human pathology

In addition to physical examination and routine laboratory studies, initial evaluation should include CT of the chest and abdomen, and determination of serum levels of HCG and alpha-fetoprotein. Mesothelioma Malignant solitary fibrous tumor.

Among the malignant germ cell tumors, males are affected far more commonly than females, but the yerminoma to female ratio is approximately equal among mature cystic teratomas.

Am J Surg Pathol. Pancoast tumor Mediasfinum pulmonary nodule Central lung Peripheral lung Bronchial leiomyoma.

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Germinoma-seminoma is the most frequent nonteratomatous malignant germ cell tumor. The intense staining pattern of OCT4 and the high sensitivity of FISH make them germinomx to other auxiliary diagnostic utilities for detecting seminoma.

The treatment for mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors should follow guidelines for poor-prognosis testicular cancer.

The diagnosis of a mediastinal germ cell tumor should be considered in all young males with a mediastinal mass. Most mediastinal malignant tumors are large and cause symptoms by compressing or invading adjacent structures, including the lungs, pleura, pericardium, and chest wall. Patients with small tumors usually asymptomatic that germlnoma resectable usually undergo thoracotomy and attempted complete resection followed by chemotherapy.

Excised tumor with rib. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Epidemiology Usually men in 20s with elevated hCG gfrminoma gynecomastia, impotence Prognostic factors Poor prognosis Case reports 13 year old boy with shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, irritable cough and weight loss Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; The nonteratomatous germinal neoplasms have the same morphologic features, approximate distribution, and prognosis as the gonadal counterparts.

Germinoma with yolk sac component.