Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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Gibb Memorial and Published by Messrs. For it can be said to them: From this it will be clear to you that true allegories ought not to be set down in popular books, let alone false ones. We have devoted a separate essay to this question, impelled by one of our friends. The apparent contradictions are meant to stimulate the learned to deeper study. Thus it is wrong to forbid the study of ancient philosophy.

It has also been injured by a host of ignorant friends who claim an affinity with it: Another group holds that there is a difference in the kind of existence.

Formats and Editions of Kitāb fasl al-maqāl []

And if he who would judge what is allowed and forbidden is required to combine in himself the qualifications for exercise of personal judgment, namely knowledge of the principles [of law] and knowledge of how to draw inferences from those principles by reasoning, how much more properly is he who would make judgments about beings required to be qualified, i. Faxl nn A rbor. They fall into two divisions: Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items.

But if they are set down in other than fael books and one deals with them by poetical, rhetorical or dialectical methods, as Abu Hamid does, then he commits an offence against the Law and against philosophy, even though the fellow intended nothing but good. Praise be to God with all due praise, and a prayer for Muhammad His chosen servant and apostle. But error proceeding from any other class of people is sheer sin, equally whether it relates to theoretical or to practical a-lmaqal. So if such is faxl case, and everything that is required in the study of the subject of intellectual syllogisms has already been examined in the most perfect manner by the ancients, presumably we ought to lay hands on their books in order to study what they said about that subject; and if it is all correct we should accept it from them, while if there is anything incorrect kutab it, we should draw attention to that.


This is al-maqap world as a whole. The Law, then, has urged us to have demonstrative knowledge of God the Exalted and all the beings of His creation.

The purpose of Scripture is to teach true science and right practice; and teaching is a,-maqal two classes, [of] concepts and [of] judgments, as the logicians have shown. In these cases the duty of the elite is to interpret them allegorically, while the duty of the masses is to take them in their apparent meaning.

And the should accept from them gladly and gratefully whatever in these books accords with the truth, and draw attention to and warn against what does not accord with faasl truth, at the same time excusing them. Thus it is not strange if the same thing that occurs accidentally in the art which calls for practical virtue should occur accidentally in the art which calls for intellectual virtue.


For this to happen, opinions must be divergent kkitab the extreme, i. It is inexcusable for the lower classes to interpret them allegorically or ktiab the demonstrative class to take them in their apparent meaning. For those religious sayings in the precious Book which are expressed to everyone have three properties that indicate their miraculous character: The result is unbelief in learners and teachers.

But when those who came after them used allegorical interpretation, their fear of God grew less, their dissensions increased, their love for one another was removed, and they became divided into sects.

For the natures of men are on different levels with respect to [their paths to] assent.

Ibn Rushd: Fasl al-maqal (Arabic Books: alkutub – مكتبة الكتب العربية)

But if other bodies are supposed, this state of affairs does not follow as a consequence. The reason for that [in the case of the latter] is that allegorical interpretation comprises two things, rejection of the apparent meaning and affirmation of the allegorical one; so that if the apparent meaning is rejected in the mind of someone who can only grasp apparent meanings, without the allegorical meaning being affirmed in his mind, the result is unbelief, if it [the text in question] concerns the principles of religion.

In fazl of my father. Moreover, this is a situation fas, is self-evident not in the scientific arts alone but also in the al-maqwl arts; for there is not one of them which a single man can construct by himself.


Indeed God has already removed many of these ills, ignorant ideas and misleading practices, by means of this triumphant rule. God is the Guide and helps us to follow the right course!

God is the Giver of success and the Guide by His Goodness. Year 10 3 8 26 21 Show more Al-,aqal latter course seems more suitable as a means of ending the doubt which arises in the soul from this [class of text]. Moreover, this accidental effect of this art is a thing which may also occur accidentally from the other arts. Anyone who commits an error about this class is excused, I mean any scholar. Some features of WorldCat will not be available.

Now it is undoubtedly an error to interpret allegorically [1] the first of the two primary classes. The reason why we have received in Scripture texts whose apparent meanings contradict each other is in order to draw the attention of those who are well grounded in science to the interpretation which reconciles them.

This manner of interpretation, if it is employed in these contexts and in this way, is authorized by Scripture; but if it is employed in other contexts, it is an error. For the first believers arrived at perfect virtue and fear of God only by using these sayings [of Scripture] without interpreting them allegorically; and ffasl of them who did find out an allegorical interpretation did not think fit to express it [to others].

In memory of my father

Thus one of two alternatives is necessary: This al-maqqal the furthest extent to which purification [of concepts] ought to be admitted. This is very apparent from [a comparison of] the condition of the first believers with the condition of those who came after them. Thus since this divine religion of ours has summoned people by these three methods, assent to it has extended to everyone, except him who stubbornly denies it with his tongue or him for whom no method of summons to God the Exalted has been appointed in religion owing to his own neglect of such matters.

The Arabic article is omitted in front of single names, e.