Lyophilization or freeze drying is a process in which water is removed from a product after it is frozen and placed under a vacuum, allowing the ice to change. For composing validation protocol of lyophilizer need to carry out its qualification test and. decide acceptance criteria. So during selection of. Hi all, I have a question regarding an OQ of a freeze dryer. Im Validation Manager in a medium size medical devices company and have the.

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All three methods of heat transfer – conduction, convection and radiation, must be considered when freeze drying a product.

Validation Equipment – Lyophilizer Qualifications

At mid-cycle, the pressure and average temperature of the chamber indicate that the steam is saturated. Hydrocarbon And Silicone Contamination Silicone levels on swabs should not exceed the negative control. Because product will dry from the top down, the tip of the thermocouple should always be placed at the very bottom and center of the container.

Another tool is available with freeze dryer designs that have external condensers. As mentioned earlier, each frozen product has a unique critical temperature. Using the vapor pressure of ice table is a scientific way to determine an appropriate pressure for freeze drying. One such method entails comparison of parallel pressure readings between a Pirani gauge and a capacitance manometer. These can be placed inside of your autoclave. Lyophilized products are extremely hydroscopic and they must be sealed in air tight containers following freeze drying to prevent rehydration from atmospheric exposure.


During primary drying, the system pressure and the shelf temperature are set and controlled in combination to yield the appropriate product temperature. Secondary drying quslification continued until the product has acceptable moisture content for long term storage.

Lyophilization and freeze drying are terms that are used interchangeably depending on the industry and location where the drying is taking place.


This regulation requires certain standards of process control lyophliizer security. We offer these with Rigid and Bendable probes.

Secondary drying rates are dependant on the product temperature. Purified Water System OQ. Sublimation is when a solid ice changes directly to a vapor without first going through a liquid water phase. Without knowing the critical temperature of the product, a trial and error approach is required to determine appropriate primary drying temperatures.

With SP Scientific your solution is just a call or an e-mail away. The resources are truly invaluable and appreciated. Our silicone gripper lyophilizeg over the logger providing a square outer shell which prevents the logger from rolling around.

The Pirani gauge, however, will give a false high reading in the presence of water vapor. Hydrocarbon qulification on swabs should not exceed the negative control. Product chambers are typically either a manifold qualifixation attached flasks, or, a larger chamber with a system of shelves on which to place the product.

For this reason, production freeze dryers are designed with metal doors and small view ports. Typically, vacuum levels for freeze drying are between 50mTorr and mTorr with mTorr to mTorr being the most common range. At the end of primary drying when all of the free ice crystals have been sublimed, the product will appear to be dried.

qualificatiob Typically, stoppering is done on vials with partially inserted stoppers. It is good practice to characterize the collapse temperature for all new injectable or ylophilizer drug formulations to be freeze dried. The choice of excipients added to a formulation can severely affect the thermal characteristics of the product and its ability to be freeze dried in a reasonable amount of time.

The product temperature is dependant on the vapor pressure at the ice interface and in turn, this vapor pressure is dependant on both the rate of heat transfer into the product which is controlled by adjusting the shelf temperature and the system vacuum level set point.


Purified Water System IQ. Larger ice crystals improve the speed of the freeze drying process because of the larger vapor pathways left behind in the dried portion of the product as the ice crystals are sublimated. Slower shelf cooling rates do not necessarily yield larger ice crystals because of the effects of super-cooling.

Vacuum is maintained in vials. The process should be repeatable with well defined temperature, pressure and time parameters for each step. Options include standard laboratory freezers, shell baths, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. When the product temperature equals the shelf temperature, it can be inferred that primary drying is complete.

TrackSense Pro Data Loggers. Typically, there are multiple steps involved for both freezing and drying of the product. Condenser cooling rates are for information only. SP’s products support research and production across divers end user markets including pharmaceutical, scientific research, industrial, aeronautic, semiconductor and healthcare. Controlled freeze drying keeps the product temperature low enough during the process to avoid changes in the dried product appearance and characteristics.

Loss of weight from a weighed amount of water in trays is not less than the stated capacity of the condenser. When sublimation of ice crystals is complete, the product temperature will increase and approach the shelf temperature.

Since all of qualificatikn free ice has been removed qualificatin primary drying, the product temperature can now be increased considerably without fear of melting or collapse. One of the most important factors to consider is the difference between the clean room environment typical of a production freeze dryer and the lab environment that most pilot units are operated in.

Freeze drying can be a multi-day process. NPT Thread to 1.